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Old 11-11-2008, 04:04 AM   #1
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Default ESA Cosmic Visions 2015-2025

Mapping the geometry of the dark UniverseThemeHow did the Universe originate and what is it made of?
Primary GoalTo map the geometry of the dark Universe
TargetsGalaxies and clusters of galaxies out to z~2,
in an all-sky survey covering 20 000 deg2
WavelengthVisible and near-infraredTelescope1.2 mOrbitL2Lifetime5 years (TBC)PartnersTo be confirmedTypeM-class mission
X-ray Evolving Universe SpectroscopyThemesWhat are the fundamental physical laws of the Universe?
How did the Universe originate and what is it made of?
Primary GoalsHow did supermassive black holes form and grow & influence galaxy growth?
How did large scale structure evolve?
How did the baryonic component of this structure become chemically enriched?
How does gravity behave in the strong field limit?
TargetsHigh redshift AGN
Clusters of galaxies
Neutron stars & black holes
WavelengthX-ray (0.5-40 keV)Telescope4.2m diameter mirrorOrbitHalo orbit at L2Lifetime5 yearsPartnersESA-JAXATypeL-class MissionSPICA
To Discover the Origins of Galaxies, Stars and PlanetsThemesWhat are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life?
How does the Solar System work?
How did the Universe originate and what is it made of?
Primary GoalUnderstanding how galaxies, stars and planets form and evolve as well as the interaction between the astrophysical processes that have led to the formation of our own Solar SystemTargetsYoung gas giant planets
Protoplanetary disks
Galactic and extragalactic star forming regions
Luminous IR galaxies, AGNs and starburst galaxies at high redshift
Deep cosmological surveys
WavelengthMedium to Far Infra-red (~5-210 μm)Telescope3.5 m Ritchey-ChretienOrbitL2Lifetimemin. 5 yearsPartnersJAXA-ESATypeM-class MissionPLATO
PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of starsThemeWhat are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life?Primary GoalDiscover and characterise a large number of close-by exoplanetary systems, with a precision in the determination of mass and radius of 1%TargetsDetect Earth sized planets around solar type stars
Detect super-earths around solar type stars
Measure solar oscillations in the host stars of exoplanets
Measure oscillations of classical pulsators
WavelengthOpticalTelescopeA number of individual catadioptric telescopesOrbitLarge amplitude libration orbit around Sun-Earth L2Lifetimemin. 5 yearsPartnersTo be confirmedTypeM-class MissionMarco Polo
Near Earth Object Sample Return MissionThemeHow does the Solar System work?Primary GoalsReturn to Earth multiple unaltered samples from a NEOSpacecraftPrimary Spacecraft
Sample Return Element
Lifetime8 yearsPartnersESA-JAXATypeM-class missionTANDEM/TSSM
Titan and Enceladus MissionThemeHow does the Solar System work?Primary GoalsTo understand the atmosphere, surface and interior, to determine the chemistry, and to derive constraints on the origin and evolution of Titan and of the saturnian system as a whole, with an emphasis on Enceladus.SpacecraftTitan orbiter
Titan in-situ aerial platforms
Titan probe/lander
Lifetime7-8 year cruise & min 2-years in orbitPartnersESA-NASATypeL-class missionCross-Scale
Plasma coupling across space and timeThemeHow does the Solar System work?
Primary GoalsQuantifying the coupling in plasmas between different physical scales in order to address fundamental questions such as: how shocks accelerate and heat particles; how reconnection converts magnetic energy and how turbulence transports energy from source to dissipation.SpacecraftUp to 12 spacecraft comprising 3 nested tetrahedraLifetime2-years in Earth orbitPartnersESA-JAXA-NASATypeM-class missionLAPLACE
A mission to Europa & Jupiter SystemThemeHow does the Solar System work?Primary GoalsWhat have been the conditions for the formation of the Jupiter system?
How does Jupiter work?
Is Europa habitable?
SpacecraftJEO: Jupiter Europa Orbiter
JMO: Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter
JPO: Jupiter Planetary Orbiter
Lifetime5-7 year cruise & 2-years in orbitPartnersESA-NASA-JAXATypeL-class missionThe primary scientific goal of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is to detect and observe gravitational waves from astronomical sources such as massive black holes (MBHs) and galactic binaries in a frequency range of 10-4 to 10-1 Hz. LISA consists of three spacecraft that act as an interferometer with an arm length of 5 million kilometres. The plane circumscribed by the three spacecraft constitutes a very large gravitational-wave antenna.

LISA's low-frequency range is inaccessible to ground-based interferometers due to local gravitational noise arising from atmospheric effects and seismic activity. Ground-based interferometers are also physically limited in length to a few kilometres, restricting their coverage to a frequency range that includes events such as supernova core collapses and binary neutron star mergers. In the low-frequency band of LISA, sources are well known and signals are stable over long periods (many months to thousands of years). LISA will detect signals from numerous astronomical sources with signal-to-noise ratios of 50-1000 for MBHs, which will allow determination of the internal parameters of their source. As the 3-spacecraft constellation orbits the Sun in the course of a year, the observed gravitational waves are Doppler-shifted by the orbital motion and amplitude-modulated by the non-isotropic antenna pattern of the detector. This allows determination of the direction of the source and assessment of some of its characteristics. For example, the source orientation can be derived if the signal is periodic and has a sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio. Depending on the strength of the source, position determination can be achieved with a precision of up to an arcminute.
LISA Science

The excellence of LISA science has been summarized by one of the conclusions of the assessment of NASA's Beyond Einstein programme, recently completed by the National Reasearch Council (cfr. "NASA's Beyond Einstein Program: an architecture for Implementation" - Sep. 2007): "On purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is most promising and least scientifically risky. Even with pessimistic assumptions about event rates, it should provide unambiguous and clean tests of the theory of general relativity in the strong field dynamical regime and be able to make detailed maps of space time near black holes. Thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking." Einstein's theory of spacetime and gravity, general relativity, predicts that motions of mass produce propagating vibrations that travel through spacetime at the speed of light. These gravitational waves (as the vibrations are called) are produced abundantly in the Universe and permeate all of space. Measuring them will add an altogether new way to explore what is happening in the Universe: rather than studying the propagation and transformation of conventional particles and fields in spacetime, as all science has done up to now, LISA will sense vibrations of the fabric of spacetime itself. Studying this new form of energy will convey rich new information about the behaviour, structure, and history of the physical universe, and about physics itself. When gravitational waves become observable they will provide a new and uniquely powerful probe of the extremes of spacetime, from the Big Bang to black holes, to address the deep questions that have emerged in Einstein's vision of the cosmos: what powered the Big Bang, what happens to space and time in black holes and what is the mysterious dark energy accelerating the expansion of the Universe?

Last edited by Dantheman62; 11-12-2008 at 12:01 AM.
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Old 11-12-2008, 12:04 AM   #2
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Default Re: ESA Cosmic Visions 2015-2025

The above post is from the European Space Agency and it's about their 9 upcoming projects. Sorry it didn't paste the way I copied it, which was alot easier to read!
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Old 11-13-2008, 11:14 PM   #3
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Default Re: ESA Cosmic Visions 2015-2025

This is a start! We have to learn and ask these questions as we move on. But first lets start with our local environment including ourselfs, then our solar system, then expand further. There is still alot more we need to learn! where are all the scientist etc. lets get to work!
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