View Single Post
Old 01-04-2009, 01:55 AM   #1
J_rod7
Avalon Senior Member
 
J_rod7's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2008
Location: Florida, USA
Posts: 301
Lightbulb Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Zero-Point Energy

*
***
*******

```
I Submit that this is the solution to the Question: What IS Dark Energy, and what IS Dark Matter

To discuss the concepts of Dark Energy & Dark Matter, Let's first look at the construction of our Material Universe. This will also review what is known from Classical Physics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics, as well as revealed information.

Considering the 'construction' of our material Universe, two very good resources of information are available.

*> The first is the book: And Still They Fly by Guido Moosbrugger, HIGHLY Recommended, and may be purchased directly from http://www.theyfly.com

*> The second resource is found in these Forum Archives, here (at the FIGU Discussion Board):
http://forum.figu.org/us/messages/13...tml?1230789785

*> In the posts from Phaethonsfire (Jacob):
http://forum.figu.org/us/messages/13...html#POST11915

These reference sources in turn, are based on the revealed information from the Plejarens and from Billy Eduard A. Meier - BEAM.

*** The Creation Universe we live in, known as the DERN Universe, has the 'shape' of ball, made up of six concentric 'belts' around a central core, altogether seven distinct 'regions.' The core, also known as the 'Central Sun,' of this Universe is pure energy compressed into a 'black hole' 7-Light-Years in radius (14-Light-Years diameter).

* The Third 'belt' (inner-shell), known as "Ur-Space" is full of Creation Energy of a 'Positive Polarity'. This 3rd belt is 'inside' our material Universe, and has a thickness of 10^14-LY = 100,000,000,000,000-LY = 100-Trillion Light-Years

* Our Material Universe is the Fourth belt of the Creation Universe.
This belt has the shape of a Spherical-Shell with a thickness of 2.5 x 10 ^15 Light-Years.
(Think of it like the rind on a watermelon, any part of which is 2,500,000,000,000,000-LY = 2.5-Quadrillion Light-Years in 'thickness').

* The Fifth 'belt' (outer-shell), known as "Transformation Belt" is full of Creation Energy of a 'Negative Polarity'. This 5th belt is 'outside' our material Universe, and has a thickness of 10 ^55 -LY (Too large a number to write here = 1 followed by 55 zeros expressed Light-Years).

This discussion will first consider both the Macrocosmic and Microcosmic known states of matter.

// Theories (T`) have basis in Fact (F`). Most Facts have basis in Truth and Truth, T:. This T:ruth Includes that revealed from Billy and the Plejarens //
// Speculation (S`) is assembled from T` with observation of additional facts F` and T: ,from outside the original theory. //
// Opinion (O`) has basis in freethinking about T` combined with T: and S`. Free-Thinking is based in Logic, inso far as possible. \\
// To simplify what is said in relation to "Dark Energy" and "Dark Matter" is my own thinking and opinion, S` & O`. //

// The ideas in Astrophysics about Dark Matter, and ideas about Black Holes, both have basis in T` and F`... //
// The ideas from Classical Physics and Quantum Physics about Dark Energy have basis in T`, F`, and S`. //
// Classical and Quantum Physics do not include T: , at least not yet. //

F`: -Our galaxy alone contains millions of black holes. Most are collapsed suns at the end of their lives. Suns of greater mass live a shorter time. Suns of larger mass expend their fuel (Hydrogen, Helium, &c) at a faster rate than suns of smaller mass. Our sun is an average size star in it's middle-age. Black Holes, also known as 'Singularities' form from large stars when the radiant outflow pressure drops to less than the gravity.

The final collapse is nearly instantaneous. Space and time 'swap places' - the Space dimensions approach Zero as the Time dimension approaches an infinite value. The star disappears from our Universe, leaving behind an infinite 'gravity well.'

F`: -To form a Black Hole, such suns must have a mass at least 3 times greater than our sun, (3 x mS). The average of Most such 'Holes' are around 10 x mS (equivalent to 10 suns). Some 'intermediate' Black Holes are in the range of 500 - 2,000 Solar mass, and these are the remains of star Clusters. A very few intermediate Black Holes have been detected. For a general discussion on the nuclear processes when a star collapses into a Black Hole:
See this: http://www.larrydsmith.com/astro/blackholes.html

T`: -The Supermassive black hole which anchors our Galaxy center is about 4-Million Solar Mass, 4 x 10 ^6 mS.

T: -640. The age of this galaxy amounts to close to exactly 810,000,000,000 (billion) years since the beginning of the first formations of gas, whereby I also have answered your question in relation to this. http://www.futureofmankind.co.uk/Bil...act_Report_238

T: -The Big Bang created our universe 46,000,000,000,000 (trillion) years ago.

T: -Approximately 1,500,000,000,000 (1.5 trillion) years after the Big Bang the first solid matter came into existence.
http://www.futureofmankind.co.uk/Bil.../DERN_Universe

F` - One light-year is equal to 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers = 9.5 x 10 ^12 Km.
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/...uestion19.html

F`: -One Solar Mass = 1.9891 1030 kg

F`: -The radius (r) of a black hole measured (to the 'Event Horizon') in kilometers equals three times the number of solar masses (m) of material (mass equivalent Energy) in the black hole. This is calculated from r=(2Gm)/c^2 ,where G is the gravitational constant which is equal to 6.67 x 10 ^-11
(See: http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/blackhole_worldbook.html )

Further discussion of the relationship of mass to size in the black hole is found here:
http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/Education/BHfaq.html

T: -The Central Sun of the Universe has a radius of 7 Light-Years. -(This equals 6.65 x 10 ^13 Km)

A simple calculation to derive the Volume of the Material Universe (Vm), is given from the Volume of a Sphere.

For this calculation, again think of a watermelon where we want to calculate the volume of the Rind.

The Formula for any Sphere is given as: V=4/3 x pi x r ^3 , For pi = 3.1415926535

Guido Moosbrugger gives us these Dimension of Radius (R), expressed in LightYears (LY):

Central Sun = 7 LY

Ur-Core = 10 ^14 LY

Ur-Space = 10 ^14 LY

Material-Belt Universe = 2.5 x 10 ^15 LY

The Central Sun may be considered as a point in relation to all other Dimensions.

Therefore, the following should be applied:

The Radius (Ro) to the 'outer' edge of the Material Universe is = 2.7 x 10 ^15 LY

The Radius (Ri) to the 'inner' edge of the Material Universe is = 2 x 10 ^14 LY

Solving Vm = [4/3 x pi x (Ro^3)] - [4/3 x pi x (Ri^3)] =
[4/3 x pi x ((2.7 x 10 ^15)^3)] - [4/3 x pi x ((2 x 10 ^14)^3)], in Cubic LightYears (LY^3).

** Anyone who has a scientific calculator, please crunch this out. My calculator broke from too many zeros. (LOL)**

T` & F`: -The volume of the 'Observable' Universe, known as the "Hubble Bubble" may be similarly calculated.
Our instruments, Optical Telescopes &c, can 'see' about 18-Billion LY. The Radio-Telescopes combined with the Chandra X-ray Telescope have pushed the Bubble out to around 27-Billion LY in all directions. This assumes a lot: the 'speed of light' is not attenuated in the vast distance; the Hubble constant is accurate; the basis values of Quantum Physics are true; the red-shift is measured accurately, other possible variables in the calculations and in the instruments, &c.

Assume the radius R of the Hubble Bubble = 22-Billion LY = 2.2 x 10^10
Therefore the volume of the Hubble Bubble is calculated as = [4/3 x pi x (2.2 x 10^10)]

That which we CAN see is only a very small part of the total Material Universe.

*** To consider the source of Dark Matter requires a little physics...:

F`: -The Atomic class includes Baryons (protons & neutrons) and Leptons (electrons). Below the level of the Atomic class, is the level (class) of Quarks, different combinations of which combine to form the Atomic class units. The masses of both the Atomic and Quark classes may be expressed in units of energy, e.g. Mev = Million-electron-volt = 10^6 eV units of measure.

F`: -As to the relative mass ratios, the protons are 938.272 Mev and neutrons are 939.466 Mev, respectively. This means it requires at least this much or more energy to 'assemble' atomic units from quarks. Quarks are fundamental matter (SUB-Atomic) particles that are constituents of neutrons and protons (baryons) and other hadrons. There are six different types of quarks. Each quark type is called a flavor.
( see: http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/quarks.html )

The three Quarks which comprise these Baryon particles (protons, neutrons), have mass of 3 Mev for the 'Up' and 6 Mev for the 'Down'. Thus the Quark mass of the proton then is 12 Mev, and that of the neutron is 15 Mev.!
O`: -The 'missing' or difference mass is the binding Energy of the Baryon.

F`: -Electrons are in the class of Leptons. The mass of an electron is approximately 1/1836 of that of the proton = 5.11 x 10^5 eV.
There are six flavours of leptons, forming three generations. The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electrons, and electron neutrinos; the second is the muonic leptons, comprising muons, and muon neutrinos; and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising tauons, and tauon neutrinos. Each lepton has a corresponding antiparticle these antiparticles are known as antileptons. (from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepton/)

T`: -The dark matter component has vastly more mass than the "visible" component of the universe. At present, the density of ordinary baryons and radiation in the universe is estimated to be equivalent to about one hydrogen atom per cubic meter of space. Only about 4% of the total energy density in the universe (as inferred from gravitational effects) can be seen directly. About 22% is thought to be composed of dark matter.

The remaining 74% is thought to consist of dark energy, an even stranger component, distributed diffusely in space. Some hard-to-detect baryonic matter (see baryonic dark matter) makes a contribution to dark matter, but constitutes only a small portion. (From Wikipedia).

F`: -Collision of galaxy clusters captured by astronomers...

A powerful collision of galaxy clusters has been captured with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope. Like its famous cousin, the so-called Bullet Cluster, this clash of clusters provides striking evidence for dark matter and insight into its properties.

T`: -"It is in our view an important step forward to understanding the properties of the mysterious dark matter," Bradac said. "Dark matter makes up five times more matter in the universe than ordinary matter. This study confirms that we are dealing with a very different kind of matter, unlike anything that we are made of. And were able to study it in a very powerful collision of two clusters of galaxies."
(See the full article here: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releas...-cog082708.php )

T`: -The large luminosity of quasars is believed to be a result of gas being accreted by supermassive black holes. This process can convert about 10 percent of the mass of an object into energy as compared to around 0.5 percent for nuclear fusion processes.

F`: -A quasar (contraction of QUASi-stellAR radio source) is an extremely powerful and distant active galactic nucleus. Quasars were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than extended sources similar to galaxies.

Large central masses (10^6 to 10^9 Solar masses) have been measured in quasars using 'reverberation mapping'. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, with no sign of a quasar nucleus, have been shown to contain a similar central black hole in their nuclei, so it is thought that all large galaxies have one, but only a small fraction emit powerful radiation and so are seen as quasars.
(See here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasar )
(And here: http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/ )

( For an excellent presentation on Black Holes,
See here: http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/ )

F`: -Seyfert galaxies are characterized by extremely bright nuclei, and spectra which have very bright emission lines of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, and oxygen. These emission lines exhibit strong Doppler broadening, which implies velocities from 500 to 4000 km/s, and are believed to originate near an accretion disk surrounding the central black hole.
(See Here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seyfert_galaxy
(And here: http://www.seyfertgalaxies.com/ )

T`: -What happens at the Event Horizon of a Black Hole? Matter is stripped down to Quarks, releasing the 'binding Energy' from the Protons and neutrons. Some of this Energy is radiated out away into free Space. Much ("many") of the Quarks are also radiated out with high values of Kinetic Energy. Photon Pairs are produced as the final stage, as matter is striped down to it's Energy equivalent.

In 'Normal Space' photon-pairs split and recombine, which returns the Energy back to the Field of Space. At the event Horizon, some of these photon pairs split, with 'positive' photons radiating away from, and 'negative' photons disappearing into the Hole. This is the source of Hawking Radiation.

Photons are their own antimatter. The photon is an elementary particle, despite the fact that it has no mass. It cannot decay on its own, although the energy of the photon can transfer (or be created) upon interaction with other particles. Photons are electrically neutral and are one of the rare particles that are identical to their antiparticle, the anti-photon.

Photons are spin-1 particles (making them bosons), with a spin axis that is parallel to the direction of travel (either forward or backward, depending on whether it's a "left-hand" or "right-hand" photon). This feature is what allows for polarization of light.
(See: http://physics.about.com/od/lightoptics/f/photon.htm )

(See additional references here: http://www.larrydsmith.com/astro/blackholes.html )
(Also See: http://skullsinthestars.com/2008/03/...-a-laboratory/

T`: -An interesting offshoot of photon-pair production, is a theoretical solution for optical Cloaking Technology. The Technology of Invisibility is discussed in the story (here: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12961080/).

***~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ *** ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~***
S`& O`: -To conclude and summarize from the fore-going information in respect to Dark Matter...

If you have spent an hour or more reading some of the references provided, this will be easy to understand...

All known galaxies contain literally millions of Black Holes. Most of all galaxies are known to have at least one Super-massive Black Hole at their cores, these each have consumed the mass-equivalent of millions of suns, some up into the billions. Black Holes have even been detected in the Globular clusters, those little islands of a few million stars each, of which several hundred such clusters orbit around our galaxy. Of course, our galaxy is typical of most other galaxies, especially the 'flat' spiral galaxies.

There is no matter within a Black Hole. It is ALL energy under tremendous pressure, a pressure greater than the speed-of-light squared. My theory T`, is that all such Black Holes provide a connection directly back to the Central Sun at the core of the Universe itself.

All active Black Holes feeding on fresh suns, spew out tremendous jets of high energy = X-rays, quarks, leptons: muons, gluons, neutrinos, positive photons, pieces of molecules, gamma, light, and and radio-frequency radiation.

They have been feeding like this for billions of years. The resultant residue creates a 'fog,' a 'smoke,' an aura of fine matter below the Atomic level which has very little gravitational interaction. This is the source of the Dark matter which settles like a huge 'vapor' within and around all galaxies.

The 'vapor' spreads itself through space, combines with that from other galaxies in galactic clusters or Super-clusters, rides along with such galactic clusters as they flow through the Universe.

T:, T`, S`& O`: -The topic now considers Dark Energy.

Recall, in this Creation Universe, that the third belt, the Ur-Space, is full of 'positive' Creation Energy; and the fifth belt, the Transformation Belt, is full of 'negative' Creation Energy. This Creation Energy flows from both belts through the Material Universe. It flows through everything, through us, through all physical material, through all space.

THIS IS the Dark Energy, which forms the background energy field of the Universe.

The regions in the Material Universe where the two flavors of Creation Energy meet together, is a region of new material creation. Matter and anti-matter are both condensed here from the union of the two polarities of Creation Energy, with a slightly greater amount of 'ordinary' matter which remains after the annihilation of the anti-matter.

Photon Energy, and all the classes of leptons, are also created here. From this emerge the new elements, hydrogen, helium, to become new stars, new galaxies, new planets, new places for new Spirit-forms.

AND - this is why the Universe continues to expand, and will continue to expand up until the mid-point in the cycle of this Creation.

Namaste
...

*******
***
*
J_rod7 is offline   Reply With Quote