Avalon Senior Member
Join Date: Sep 2008
Location: East Coast USA
Re: Who owns The Bank of England...
some history of how the international banking system got a foothold s.c.
In 1743 a goldsmith named Amschel Moses Bauer opened a coin shop in Frankfurt, Germany. He hung above his door a sign depicting a Roman eagle on a red shield. The shop became known as the Red Shield firm. The German word for 'red shield' is Rothschild.
Amschel Bauer had a son, Meyer Amschel Bauer. At a very early age Mayer showed that he possessed immense intellectual ability, and his father spent much of his time teaching him everything he could about the money lending business and in the basic dynamics of finance. A few years after his father's death in 1755, Mayer went to work in Hannover as a clerk, in a bank, owned by the Oppenheimers. While in the employ of the Oppenheimers, he was introduced to a General von Estorff for whom he ran errands. Meyer's superior ability was quickly recognized and his advancement within the firm was swift. He was awarded a junior partnership. Von Estorff would later provide the yet-to-be formed House of Rothschild an entré into to the palace of Prince William.
His success allowed him the means to return to Frankfurt and to purchase the business his father had established in 1743. The big Red Shield was still displayed over the door. Recognizing the true significance of the Red Shield (his father had adopted it as his emblem from the Red Flag which was the emblem of the revolutionary minded Jews in Eastern Europe), Mayer Amschel Bauer changed his name to Rothschild (red shield). It was at this point that the House of Rothschild came into being.
Through his experience with the Oppenheimers, Meyer Rothschild learned that loaning money to governments and kings was much more profitable than loaning to private individuals. Not only were the loans bigger, but they were secured by the nation's taxes.
Meyer Rothschild had five sons, Amschel, Salomon, Nathan, Karl and Jakob. Meyer spent the rest of his life instructing them all in the secret techniques of money creation and manipulation. As they came of age, he sent them to the major capitals of Europe to open branch offices of the family banking business. Amschel, stayed in Frankfurt, Salomon was sent to Vienna. Nathan was sent to London. Karl went to Naples, and Jakob went to Paris.
Although all the sons became astute branch managers, Nathan exhibited a superior affinity for the banking business. When he got to London, he became a merchant banker and began to cement ties between the House of Rothschild and the Bank of England.
The House of Rothschild continued to buy and sell bullion and rare coins. Through their shrewd business transactions they successfully bought out or dismantled most of the competition in Europe. In 1769, Meyer became a court agent for Prince William IX of Hesse-Kassel, who was the grandson of George II of England, a cousin to George III, a nephew of the King of Denmark, and a brother- in-law to the King of Sweden. Before long, the House of Rothschild became the go between for big Frankfurt bankers like the Bethmann Brothers, and Rueppell & Harnier.
In 1785, Meyer moved his entire family to a five story dwelling he shared with the Schiff family. In 1865 The Schiffs' not-yet-born grandson Jacob would move to New York and in 1917 become the mastermind behind the funding of the Bolshevik Revolution. This action would successfully instate communism as a major world movement, which was, (and still is), a basic tenet of the Illuminati and their collectivist agenda, (but more Jacob Schiff and the Illuminati agenda later). From this point on the Rothschilds and the Schiffs would play a central role in the rest of European financial history, and subsequently that of the United States and the world.
Meyer Rothschild began to realize that in order to attain the power necessary to influence and control the finances of the various monarchs in Europe, he would have to wrest this influence and power from the church, which would necessitate its destruction. To accomplish this, he enlisted the help of a Catholic priest, Adam Weishaupt, to assemble a secret Satanic order.
Adam Weishaupt was born February 6, 1748 at Ingoldstadt, Bavaria. Weishaupt, born a Jew, was educated by the Jesuits who converted him to Catholicism. He purportedly developed an intense hatred for the Jesuits. Although he became a Catholic priest, his faith had been shaken by the Jesuits and he became an atheist. Weishaupt was an ardent student of French philosopher Voltaire (1694-1778). Voltaire, a revolutionary who held liberal religious views, had written in a letter to King Frederick II, ("the Great"):
"Lastly, when the whole body of the Church should be sufficiently weakened and infidelity strong enough, the final blow (is) to be dealt by the sword of open, relentless persecution. A reign of terror (is) to be spread over the whole earth, and...continue while any Christian should be found obstinate enough to adhere to Christianity."
It is believed that, as a result of Voltaire's writings, Weishaupt formulated his ideas concerning the destruction of the Church. In 1775, when summoned by the House of Rothschild, he immediately defected and, at the behest of Meyer, began to organize the Illuminati. The 1st chapter of the order started in his home town of Ingolstadt.
As the name implies, those individuals who are members of the Illuminati possess the 'Light of Lucifer'. As far as they are concerned, only members of the human race who possess the 'Light of Lucifer' are truly enlightened and capable of governing. Denouncing God, Weishaupt and his followers considered themselves to be the cream of the intelligentsia - the only people with the mental capacity, the knowledge, the insight and understanding necessary to govern the world and bring it peace. Their avowed purpose and goal was the establishment of a "Novus Ordo Seclorum" - a New World Order, or One World Government.
Through the network of the Illuminati membership, Meyer Rothschild's efforts were redoubled and his banking empire became firmly entrenched throughout Europe. His sons, who were made Barons of the Austrian Empire, continued to build on what their father had started and expand his financial influence.
During the American Revolution, the House of Rothschild brokered a deal between the Throne of England and Prince William of Germany. William was to provide 16,800 Hessian soldiers to help England stop the Revolution in America. Rothschild was also made responsible for the transfer of funds that were to pay the German soldiers. The transfer was never made. The soldiers were never paid, which may account for their poor showing. The Americans prevailed. At this point Meyer Rothschild set his sights on America.
The "Illuminati" was a name used by a German sect that existed in the 15th century. They practiced the occult, and professed to possess the 'light' that Lucifer had retained when he became Satan.
Meanwhile Benjamin Franklin, having become very familiar with the Bank of England and fractional reserve banking, (see goldsmiths above), understood the dangers of a privately owned Central Bank controlling the issue of the Nation's currency and resisted the charter of a central bank until his death in 1791. That was the same year that Alexander Hamilton pushed through legislation that would provide for the charter of The First Bank of the United States. Ironically, the bank was chartered by the Bank of England to finance the war debt of the Revolutionary War. Nathan Rothschild invested heavily that first bank. He immediately set about to control all financial activity, between banks, in America.
There were a couple of problems, though. The U.S. Constitution put control of the nation's currency in the hands of Congress, and made no provisions for Congress to delegate that authority. It even established the basic currency unit, the dollar. The dollar was Constitutionally mandated to be a silver coin based on the Spanish pillar dollar and to contain 375 grains of silver.
This single provision was designed to keep the American money supply out of the hands of the banking industry. The Bank of England made several attempts to usurp control of the U.S. money supply but failed. Still, through their Illuminati agents, they continued to enlist supporters through bribery and kickbacks.
Any proponent of a fractional reserve banking system is an economic predator.
During the next twenty years the country would fall prey to contrived financial havoc as a result of the bankers policies of creating cycles of inflation and tight money. During times of inflation the economy would boom, there would be high employment, and people would borrow money to buy houses and farms. At that point the bankers would raise interest rates and incite a depression which would, obviously, cause unemployment. People who could not pay their mortgages would have their homes and farms repossessed by the bank for a fraction of their true value. This is the essence of the Illuminati ploy, and it would recur, time and time again. In fact, it's still happening today.
By 1810,The House of Rothschild not only had a substantial stake in the Bank of the United States, they were quietly gaining control of the Bank of England. Although foreign owners were not, by law, allowed a say in the day to day operations of the Bank of the United States, there is little doubt that the American share holders and directors were, if not affiliated, complicit in the aims and goals of the Illuminati and their central bankers.
In 1811 the charter for the First Bank of America was not renewed. As a result, the House of Rothschild lost millions. This enraged Nathan Rothschild so much that he, almost single handedly fomented the War of 1812. Using his formidable power and influence, he coerced the British Parliament to attempt to retake the Colonies. The first military attempt failed. The second strategy was to divide and conquer. Any serious historian will find that the Civil War was largely stirred up by Rothschild's illuminati agents in the United States.
Rothschild's coat of arms at the entrance to Rotschild's burial place at the Ramat Hanadiv gardens in Israel. Image source click here
Meyer Amschel Rothschild died on September 19, 1812. His will spelled out specific guidelines that were to be maintained by his descendants:
1) All important posts were to be held by only family members, and only male members were to be involved on the business end. The oldest son of the oldest son was to be the head of the family, unless otherwise agreed upon by the rest of the family, as was the case in 1812, when Nathan was appointed as the patriarch.
2) The family was to intermarry with their own first and second cousins, so their fortune could be kept in the family, and to maintain the appearance of a united financial empire. For example, his son James (Jacob) Mayer married the daughter of another son, Salomon Mayer. This rule became less important in later generations as they refocused family goals and married into other fortunes.
3) Rothschild ordered that there was never to be "any public inventory made by the courts, or otherwise, of my estate...Also I forbid any legal action and any publication of the value of the inheritance."
Nathan Mayer Rothschild, who, by 1820, had established a firm grip on the Bank of England stated:
"I care not what puppet is placed upon the throne of England to rule the Empire on which the sun never sets. The man who controls Britain's money supply controls the British Empire, and I control the British money supply."
The Second Bank of the United States, was also chartered by the Bank of England to carry the American war debt. When its charter expired in 1836, President Andrew Jackson refused to renew it, saying a central bank concentrated too much power in the hands of un elected bankers.
In 1838 Nathan made the following statement:
"Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws."
During the first quarter of the nineteenth century the Rothschilds expanded their financial empire throughout Europe. They crisscrossed the continent with railroads, which allowed the transport of coal and steel from their newly purchases coal mines and iron works. Through a loan to the government of England, they held the first lien on the Suez Canal. They financed the Romanov dynasty in tsarist Russia, provided the funding that allowed Cecil Rhodes the opportunity to plunder and sack South Africa as well as the funding that allowed the government of France to plunder and sack North Africa.
As I have stated many times before, "the Dark Side" has been on both sides of every war that has been fought in modern times. American and British Intelligence have documented evidence that the House of Rothschild has financed both sides of every war, since the American Revolution. Financier Haym Salomon, an Illuminati agent, supported the patriots during the American Revolution, then later made loans to James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe. As explained earlier, during the Napoleonic Wars, one branch of the family funded Napoleon, while another financed Great Britain, Germany, and other nations.
One of the most prominent Illuminati Orders in the U.S. was the secret "Order of Skull & Bones". Illuminati agents, William Huntington Russell and Alphonso Taft, founded Chapter 322, at Yale University in 1833. Then, in 1856 the Order was incorporated as the Russell Trust. William Russell became a member of the Connecticut State Legislature in 1846 and a General in Connecticut National Guard in 1862. Alphonso Taft became Secretary of War in the Grant Administration in 1876, U.S. Attorney General in 1876 and U.S. Ambassador to Russia in 1884. Alphonso Taft's son later became Chief Justice and United States President.
In the years preceding the Civil War, a number of "Skull and Bones" Patriarchs were to become leaders in the Secessionist movements of various Southern States. It has been suggested that these pressures exacerbated an already tenuous situation, and set the stage for the fomentation of the Civil War. The Rothschild Banks provided financing for both the North and the South during the war. After the civil war, the more clever method was used to take over the United States. The Rothschilds financed August Belmont, Khun Loeb and the Morgan Banks. Then they financed the Harrimans (Railroads), Carnegie (Steel) and other industrial Titans. Agents like Paul Warburg, Jacob Schiff, Bernard Baruch were then sent to the United States to effect the next phase of the takeover.
By the end of the 19th. Century, the Rothschilds had controlling influence in England, U.S., France, Germany, Austria and Italy. Only Russia was left outside the financial sphere of world domination. England, through the Bank of England, ruled most of the world. Jacob Schiff, president of Khun Loeb Bank in New York was appointed by B'nai B'rith (A secret Jewish Masonic Order meaning "Bothers of the Convenent") to be the Revolutionary Leader of the Revolution in Russia. A cartel, made up of the Carnegies, Morgans , Rockefellers, and Chases would contribute to the manifestation of communism. On January 13, 1917, Leon Trotsky arrived in the United States and received a U.S. Passport. He was frequently seen entering the palatial residence of Jacob Schiff.
Jacob Schiff, and his supporters, financed the training of Trotsky's Rebel Band, comprised mainly of Jews from New York's East Side, on Rockefeller's Standard oil Company property in New Jersey. When sufficiently trained in the techniques of guerrilla warfare and terror, Trotsky's rebel band departed with twenty million dollars worth of gold, also provided by Jacob Schiff, on the ship S.S. Kristianiafjord bound for Russia to wage the Bolshevik revolution.
After the Bolshevik Revolution and the wholesale murder of the entire Russian royal family, Standard Oil of New Jersey brought 50% of the huge Caucasus oil field even though the property had theoretically been nationalized. In 1927, Standard Oil of New York built a refinery in Russia. Then Standard Oil concluded a deal to market Soviet Oil in Europe and floated a loan of $75 million to the Bolsheviks. Jacob Schiff and Paul Warburg at the Kuhn Loeb Bank started a campaign for a central bank in the United States. They then helped the Rothschild's to manipulate the financial Panic of 1907.
Then, the panic of 1907 was used as an argument for having a central bank to prevent such occurrences. Paul Warburg told the Banking and Currency Committee: 'Let us have a national clearing house'."
The Federal Reserve Act was the brainchild of Baron Alfred Rothschild of London. The final version of the Act was decided on at a secret meeting at Jekyll Island Georgia, owned by J.P. Morgan. Present at the meeting were; A. Piatt Andrew, Assistant secretary of the Treasury, Senator Nelson Aldrich, Frank Vanderlip, President of Kuhn Loeb and Co., Henry Davidson, Senior Partner of J.P. Morgan Bank, Charles Norton, President of Morgan's First National of New York, Paul Warburg, Partner in Khun Loeb and Co. and Benjamin Strong, President of Morgan's Bankers Trust Co.
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913, brought about the decimation of the U.S. Constitution and was the determining act of the international financiers in consolidating financial power in the United States. Pierre Jay, Initiated into the "Order of Skull and Bones" in 1892, became the first Chairman of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. A dozen members of the Federal Reserve can be linked to the same "Order."
The Rothschilds operate out of an area in the heart of London, England, the financial district, which is known as 'The City', or the 'Square Mile.' All major British banks have their main offices here, along with branch offices for 385 foreign banks, including 70 from the United States. It is here that you will find the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, Lloyd's of London, the Baltic Exchange (shipping contracts), Fleet Street (home of publishing and newspaper interests), the London Commodity Exchange (to trade coffee, rubber, sugar and wool), and the London Metal Exchange. It is virtually the financial hub of the world.
Positioned on the north bank of the Thames River, covering an area of 677 acres or one square mile (known as the "wealthiest square mile on earth"), it has enjoyed special rights and privileges that enabled them to achieve a certain level of independence since 1191. In 1215, its citizens received a Charter from King John, granting them the right to annually elect a mayor (known as the Lord Mayor), a tradition that continues today.
Des Griffin, in his book Descent into Slavery, described 'The City' as a sovereign state (much like the Vatican), and that since the establishment of the privately owned Bank of England in 1694, this financial center has actually become the last word in England's national affairs. He contends that the country is run by powers in 'the City' and that the throne, the prime minister, and parliament are simply fronts for the real power. E. C. Knuth, in his book Empire of the City, suggests that when the queen enters 'The City,' she is subservient to the Lord Mayor (under him, is a committee of 12-14 men, known as 'The Crown'), because this privately-owned corporation is not subject to the Queen, or the Parliament. The Rothschilds have traditionally chosen the Lord mayor since 1820.
The last national election in the United States provided its citizenry with a choice between two known members of a the same Satanic cult. And even then, the outcome of this election has come under extreme scrutiny. For further exploration into the 2004 Presidential election please follow this link.
"Those who vote decide nothing. Those who count the vote decide everything."
- Joseph Stalin
Proofs of a Conspiracy Against all the Religions and Governments of Europe by John Robinson
The Enlightenment, Freemasonry, and The Illuminati by Conrad Geiger
A Bavarian Illuminati Primer by Trevor W. McKeown
The Illuminati and the Council on Foreign Relations by Myron C. Fagan
Merchants of Debt by Hans Schicht
The Eagle and the Serpent by Dr. Wesley A. Swift
Article from: http://www.silverbearcafe.com/private/rothschild.html
Related: Who Are The Illuminati?
The Bankers Manifesto of 1892
The Rothschild Dynasty
Financial Wizzards & Wealthy Cults, The Rothschild Bloodline
The Creature from Jekyll Island by G. Edward Griffin
Bloodlines of the Illuminati by Fritz Springmeier
The Secrets of the Federal Reserve by Eustace Mullins
Rothschild's Articles - Cliff Shack
French Rothschild Branch Behind the Planned Genocide Of Armenians
Rothschild-British Intel Alliance Behind Chechen Terror?
The Rothschilds and their "Nazi" Pope
Conspiracy of Zion
Hitler didn't want world war
What You Didn't Know About Taxes & The 'Crown'
The Illuminati-Staged US Presidential Election
Election 2004: Alien vs. Predator
Audio: The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Lecture on the Federal Reserve - G. Edward Griffin (rm)
Eustace Mullins (rm)
Video: Capitalist Conspriracy - G. Edward Griffin (wmv)
The Money Masters (wmv)
Money, Banking and the Federal Reserve - Ludwig von Mises Institute (wmv)
Red Ice Creations
some latter day progeny built by those bankers:
ths is a favorable description
While there is much that came from the Frankfurt School
its base agenda is still Marxist Socialism
NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH NATIONAL SOCIALISM
The Frankfurt School
and “Critical Theory”
Index to the biographies and writings of members of the “Frankfurt School”, or Institute for Social Research, set up by a group of Marxist intellectuals in Germany in 1923, affiliated to the University of Frankfurt and independently of the Communist Party, which has been influential in the development of Marxist theory ever since.
The founding of the Institut marked the beginning of a current of “Marxism” divorced from the organised working class and Communist Parties, which over the decades merged with bourgeois ideology in academia.
The Institut für Sozialforschung (Institut) was the creation of Felix Weil, who was able to use money from his father's grain business to finance the Institut. Weil was a young Marxist who had written his PhD on the practical problems of implementing socialism and was published by Karl Korsch.
With the hope of bringing different trends of Marxism together, Weil organised a week-long symposium (the Erste Marxistische Arbeitswoche) in 1922 attended by Georg Lukacs, Karl Korsch, Karl August Wittfogel, Friedrich Pollock and others. The event was so successful that Weil set about erecting a building and funding salaries for a permanent institute. Weil negotiated with the Ministry of Education that the Director of the Institut would be a full professor from the state system, so that the Institut would have the status of a University.
Weil himself was an orthodox Marxist, who saw Marxism as scientific; the role of the Institut would be social and historical research mainly on the workers' movement. Indeed, in its early years, the Institut did fairly orthodox historical research. However, one of Weil's central objectives was also cross-disciplinary research, something which the German University system made impossible.
Although Georg Lukacs and Karl Korsch both attended the Arbeitswoche which had included a study of Korsch's Marxism and Philosophy, both were too committed to political activity and Party membership to join the Institut, although Korsch participated in publishing ventures for a number of years.
The way Lukacs was obliged to repudiate his History and Class Consciousness, published in 1923 and probably a major inspiration for the work of the Frankfurt School, was an indicator for others that independence from the Communist Party was necessary for genuine theoretical work.
Friedrich Pollock was one of those who had been involved with the Institut from the beginning, and took over the role of Director on the death of Carl Grünberg. Pollock was content to concern himself with administrative matters, but he was also a life-long friend and associate of Max Horkheimer, who is probably the figure most identified as the leading representative of the Frankfurt School.
Max Horkheimer [Archive] later himself became Director of the Institut, and it was Horkheimer who guided the Institut into its innovative exploration of cultural aspects of the development of capitalism.
See Horkheimer’s opening address on becoming Director.
Karl August Wittfogel was a participant from the beginning, but was a Party member and had a more orthodox, “scientific” view of Marxism. It is Wittfogel who established the classic Marxist analysis of “Asiatic Despotism.”
Richard Sorge worked at the Instiut, but as it turned out was only there in his role as a Soviet spy.
David Ryazanov [Archive] was assigned to Germany to compile the writings of Marx and Engels and publish the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe, and worked closely with the Institut.
In 1931/32 a number of psychoanalysts from the Frankfurt Institute of Psychoanalysis and others who were acquainted with members of the Institut began to work systematically with the Institut. These included Franz Borkenau, Erich Fromm, Wilhelm Reich, Karl Landauer and Heinrich Meng.
In joining what was predominantly a “Hegelian-materialist” current of Marxists, these psychologists gave the development of Marxist theory an entirely new direction, which has left its imprint on social theory ever since.
Erich Fromm [Archive] dealt with psychological aspects of social control, delusion and conformity and became one of the founders of “socialist humanism”.
Wilhelm Reich developed his own doctrine of sexual liberalism as an antidote to political conformism and social psychosis.
Other young German Communist intellectuals who were associated with the Institut, but after the Nazi takeover, wound up in the United States, were Kurt Lewin and Adolph Löwe.
They all went on to make significant contributions to social theory, though only distantly related to their initial Communist inspirations. Kurt Lewin for instance contributed to the emergence of group-dynamics and social action theory as specialised disciplines. Adolph Lowe made important contributions to the development of political economy.
Raymond Aron was a French journalist and sociologist.
Leo Lowenthal [Archive] was one of the early workers at the Institut
whose principal interest was in the sociology of literature.
Later he was joined by the Hegelian philosopher Herbert Marcuse [Archive] who was probably the only member of the Institut who achieved wide influence among political activists, in the 1960s.
When Hitler came to power, the Institut was closed down, and by various routes, most of the participants in the Institut regrouped themselves in New York, with a new Institute affiliated to Columbia University. They continued to publish in German, even though very few people would have been reading their work in that language. However, after the War, the Institut returned to Frankfurt.
Perhaps two of the most famous figures who were in the central core of the Institut were Theodor Adorno [Archive] and Walter Benjamin, both renowned for their studies of literature and mass culture which would become so influential from the 1960s on.
After the Institut re-established itself in Germany after the War, the main figure of the younger generation was Jürgen Habermas [Archive] who continued to develop the “critical theory” in the Hegelian tradition of Adorno and Marcuse. Habermas was instrumental in the 1960s in developing the theory of “networks,” but in later years Habermas has focussed on communicative ethics in the tradition of Immanuel Kant, and departed not only from the Marxist, but even the Hegelian tradition.
( A BRANCH established in NYC is extant and draws from students
from across the globe.
Its name is "The New School for Social Justice " and many of Folliewoods
brightest and outspoken stars were students there . To become a
successful therapist in NYC one MUST have a few courses from 'TNS'
in ones resume and the connections that go with that.
It shouldnt need to be pointed out the ONE connection among all the founders and administrators relative to the Marxist Theory and the New School.
At NYC Marxist School many teachers are also famous ones from 'TNS'
and do travel to many colleges and Universities giving lectures to
seduce people into the Marxist philosophy. I write from personal experience.
For any who really want to understand what is happening in
OUR world today and what more is planned it is a good start to
read comparisons of Marxist Socailism to National Socialism.
The differences are that between slavery and freedom . Progress and stagnation. )
Currently Axel Honneth represents the third generation, continuing the work of Jürgen Habermas, but with a partial return to Hegel, still quite remote from any reading of Karl Marx.
After the isolation and Stalinisation of the Soviet Union, and the consequent decline of the Communist Parties in the “West,” the possibilities for the fruitful development of Marxism as a revolutionary-critical theory in close connection with the practical-critical activity of the workers movement, became extremely restricted.
The current generation of Critical Theorists, unlike previous generations, is led by women, such as Nancy Fraser, Seyla Benhabib and Agnes Heller:
The intellectuals who founded the Frankfurt Institut deliberatively cut out a space for the development of Marxist theory, inside the “academy” and independently of all kinds of political party.
The result was a process in which Marxism merged with bourgeois ideology. A parallel process took place in post-World War Two France, also involving a merging with Freudian ideas. One of the results was undoubtedly an enrichment of bourgeois ideology. In this connection Paul Mattick's Marcuse: One Dimensional Man In Class Society (1972) is worth reading. But also, despite everything, the Frankfurt School makes an important critique of orthodox Marxism, and their work should be taken seriously.